On the occasion of World Tuberculosis (TB) Day, 24 March 2012, the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) has published a short video that highlights some of the EDCTP funded TB research in sub-Saharan Africa.
In addition, this article presents several areas of development: new diagnostic tools, shorter treatment periods, prevention of TB, and safe treatment combinations in TB-HIV co-infected patients.
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Identification of a predominant genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous populationby S. A. Hadi et al.
After nearly a century of vaccination and six decades of drug therapy, tuberculosis (TB) kills more people annually than any other infectious disease. Substantial challenges to disease eradication remain among vulnerable and underserved populations. The Guarani-Kaiowá people are an indigenous population in Paraguay and the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This community, marginalized in Brazilian society, experiences severe poverty. Like other South American indigenous populations, their TB prevalence is high, but the disease has remained largely unstudied in their communities. Herein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from local clinics were whole genome sequenced, and a population genetic framework was generated. Phylogenetics show M. tuberculosis isolates in the Guarani-Kaiowá people cluster away from selected reference strains, suggesting divergence. Most cluster in a single group, further characterized as M. tuberculosis sublineage 4.3.3. Closer analysis of SNPs showed numerous variants across the genome, including in drug resistance-associated genes, and with many unique changes fixed in each group. We report that local M. tuberculosis strains have acquired unique polymorphisms in the Guarani-Kaiowá people, and drug resistance characterization is urgently needed to inform public health to ensure proper care and avoid further evolution and spread of drug-resistant TB.
Effects of introducing Xpert MTB/RIF test on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis diagnosis in KwaZulu-Natal South Africaby Nomonde R Dlamini-Mvelase, Lise Werner, Rogerio Phili, Lindiwe P Cele and Koleka P Mlisana
The prison setting has been often cited as a possible reservoir of tuberculosis (TB) including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. This is particularly true in low-income, high TB prevalence countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A systemic literature review was done to assess the prevalence, drug resistance and risk factors for acquiring TB in the prison population. Our review indicated a high prevalence of TB in prisons which is reported to be 3- to 1000-fold higher than that found in the civilian population, indicating evidence and the need for public health policy formulation. In addition, high levels of MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB have been reported from prisons, which is a warning call to review prison TB control strategy. Multiple risk factors such as overcrowding, poor ventilation, malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and others have fuelled the spread of TB in prisons.
Rapid and Inexpensive Detection of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a Resazurin Microtitreplate Assay in a High Burden Tuberculosis Reference Laboratoryby Prenika Jaglal, Melendhran Pillay, Koleka Mlisana
This review, written by Ruth McNerney and Peter Daley, provides an overview of the state of research into point-of-care diagnostics for active tuberculosis and highlights the barriers to the development of these tests.